From Niche to Mainstream: Shaping Demand for Green Steel

This report on the demand for green steel examines the impact of steel production using low-carbon technologies further down the value chain.   Key Takeaways Due to weak carbon prices and high electricity costs, producing green steel incurs in a premium, which...

Joint letter calling for separate emissions reductions and permanent CDR targets in EU 2040 climate framework

Sandbag co-signed an open letter sent to the European Commission by 114 leading academics, businesses, civil society organisations and research institutions urging the EU to set explicit and separate targets for greenhouse gas emissions reductions, land-based carbon...

Updating of the EU ETS free allocation rules: Polluting for free during a climate crisis

In this joint op-ed, first featured in Carbon Pulse, Sandbag policy officer Aymeric Amand and Carbon Market Watch policy expert Lidia Tamellini examine the revision of the Free Allocation Regulation. The EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) is one of the core EU...

European Commission lets recycled steel down in regulation proposal

Sandbag and 12 other organisations – representing important environmental NGOs, think tanks and the European recycling industry – have co-signed a letter addressed to Members of the European Parliament and Members of Coreper 1 in response to the European Commission’s...

Flat Steel in the Free Allocation Regulation

Following the revision of the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) Directive in April 2023, the European Commission was mandated to review the Free Allocation Regulation, which establishes the methodology that calculates the number of free emission allowances for sectors...

The European Hydrogen Bank Confirms a Blind Support Approach

The Commission has recently published the Terms & Conditions (T&C) for the pilot auction of the European Hydrogen Bank (EHB) taking place on the 23rd of November 2023, in an attempt to meet the ambitious target set in the REPowerEU plan of 10Mt domestically...

We’re a non-profit climate change think tank which uses data analysis to build evidence-based campaigns on climate policy

We focus on EU policies such as the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, carbon border adjustment mechanisms and emissions reductions in industrial sectors. We believe in Europe’s ability to lead climate action by example and use its large market and ability to stimulate technological competition as an incentive for others to follow. But we’re also aware of the risk that Europe might fail to deliver on its own pledges, which is why we want to get EU climate policy right.

Our Work

Carbon Pricing

Our research on the EU ETS and emission allowances, advocating for efficient carbon pricing mechanisms and concrete ways to drive emission reductions.


Exploring the potential of electrification, circularity, and innovative technologies to decarbonise hard-to-abate sectors like steel, aluminium, and cement.


Supporting a strong CBAM to phase out the allocation of free emission allowances, address carbon leakage, and accelerate global climate action.

Climate Financing

Our analysis of EU funding initiatives driving climate innovation and industrial decarbonisation. Ensuring revenues from the EU ETS and CBAM are well spent.

Data Tools

Our data visualisation and simulation tools, allowing EU policymakers to gain unique insights and implement informed climate policies.


Upcoming policy developments


6 February: European Commission to publish its Communication on the Industrial Carbon Management Strategy (cf. CCS/U strategy).  

6 February: First Climate Change Expert Group meeting on aviation.  

8 February: End of first European Hydrogen Bank auction.  

19 February: Political trilogue on the Carbon Removals Certification Framework.


4 March: Energy Council  

26 March: Ministerial level meeting: Towards a climate neutral and resilient society in 2050 

End of March: end of scrutiny period of FAR by Parliament and Council 

First Quarter of 2024

Final vote of the Parliament and the Council to formally adopt the reform of the EU’s Electricity Market Design (EMD)  

Final vote of the Parliament and the Council to formally adopt the Ecodesign for Sustainable Products Regulation (ESPR)  

Final vote of the Parliament and the Council to formally adopt the revised Construction Products Regulation (CPR)  

Final vote of the Parliament and the Council to formally adopt the revised Industrial Emissions Directive (IED)


Sandbag is recognised as a top global climate think-tank

An inspirational idea that promises to make a real and positive difference… and a wonderful opportunity to help sort out the climate mess we’ve all created. Prof. Chris Turney is the author of Ice, Mud and Blood: Lessons from Climates Past
Chris Turney

Professor, University of Exeter

Sandbag is playing a crucial role in making sure that Europe’s cornerstone climate policy actually does its job.
Caroline Lucas

United Kingdom MP

Sandbag… strikes a balance between underlining the merits of the EU ETS and criticising the weaknesses.
Connie Hedegaard

Former European Commissioner


Mundo-b Matogné. Rue d'Edimbourg 26, Ixelles 1050 Belgium.

Sandbag is a not-for-profit (ASBL) organisation registered in Belgium under the number 0707.935.890.

EU transparency register no. 277895137794-73.

VAT: BE0707935890.

Read our full Privacy Policy here.